An American Girl In The Hawaiian Islands: Kawaiahaʻo Seminary 1890-1893

An American Girl in the Hawaiian Islands: Letters of Carrie Prudence Winter 1890-1893/ selected and edited by Sandra Bonura and Deborah Day; forward by C. Kalani Beyer; University of Hawaii Press 2012

“When twenty-three-year-old Carrie Prudence Winter caught her first glimpse of Honolulu from aboard the Zealandia in October 1890, she had “never seen anything so beautiful.” She had been traveling for two months since leaving her family home in Connecticut and was at last only a few miles from her final destination, Kawaiaha’o Female Seminary, a flourishing boarding school for Hawaiian girls. As the daughter of staunch New England Congregationalists, Winter had dreamed of being a missionary teacher as a child and reasoned that “teaching for a few years among the Sandwich Islands seemed particularly attractive” while her fiancé pursued a science degree. During her three years at Kawaiaha’o, Winter wrote often and at length to her “beloved Charlie”; her lively and affectionate letters provide readers with not only an intimate look at nineteenth-century courtship, but many invaluable details about life in Hawai’i during the last years of the monarchy and a young woman’s struggle to enter a career while adjusting to surroundings that were unlike anything she had ever experienced.

In generous excerpts from dozens of letters, Winter describes teaching and living with her pupils, her relationships with fellow teachers, and her encounters with Hawaiian royalty (in particular Kawaiaha’o enjoyed the patronage of Queen Lili’uokalani, whose adopted daughter was enrolled as a pupil) and members of influential missionary families, as well as ordinary citizens. She discusses the serious health concerns (leprosy, smallpox, malaria) that irrevocably affected the lives of her students and took a keen (if somewhat naive) interest in relaying the political turmoil that ended in the annexation of the Hawaiian Islands by the U.S. in 1898.

The book opens with a magazine article written by Winter and published while she was still teaching at Kawaiaha’o, which humorously recounts her journey from Connecticut to Hawai’i and her arrival at the seminary. The work is augmented by more than fifty photographs, four autobiographical student essays, and an appendix identifying all of Winter’s students and others mentioned in the letters. A foreword by education historian C. Kalani Beyer provides a context for understanding the Euro-centric and assimilationist curriculum promoted by early schools for Hawaiians like Kawaiaha’o Female Seminary and later the Kamehameha Schools and Mid-Pacific Institute.”

[*THE NAMES OF ~100 GIRLS WHO WERE PUPILS AT THE SEMINARY DURING CARRIE’S 3-YEAR TENURE APPEAR IN THIS BOOK+ — HOWEVER, IT IS IMPORTANT TO NOTE THAT THIS IS NOT THE FULL ENROLLMENT OF THE SCHOOL AT THAT TIME. FROM OTHER SOURCES WE KNOW THAT THE AVERAGE YEARLY ENROLLMENT, IN THIS TIME PERIOD, WAS ABOUT 140 STUDENTS. FOR EXAMPLE, AN 1892 CIRCULAR INCLUDES 143 STUDENT NAMES. WHEN THESE ARE CROSS-REFERENCED WITH THE NAMES APPEARING IN AMERICAN GIRL LESS THAN HALF APPEAR IN BOTH. KEEP AN EYE OUT FOR A FUTURE POST THAT WILL TRANSCRIBE THE 1892 HAUMANA LIST.]

+AG’s Co-editor Deborah Day continues to research these ~100 girls and has compiled extensive biographies for many of them. Please refer to this blog’s posts on two research presentations that she has done: https://kawaiahaoseminary.wordpress.com/2021/07/09/deborah-days-presentation-for-hui-aloha-%ca%bbaina-o-honolulu-on-november-12-2017/ and https://kawaiahaoseminary.wordpress.com/2021/06/02/the-life-of-emma-powers-feary-kamakawelewele-in-honolulu-and-kalaupapa-1871-1947/. In addition, her article “Reconnecting to Kawaiahaʻo Female Seminary: The Lives of the Students at the End of the Nineteenth Century ” appears in the 2020 Hawaiian Journal of History and can be accessed on eVols at the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa via this link: http://hdl.handle.net/10524/63990. Deborah Day can be contacted at dday11925@roadrunner.com

American Girl’s Index does not include people’s names
An appendix includes bios for all people mentioned in her letters
students in bold
teachers/principals italicized in bold
AbrahamJessie
AdamsET
AeaSarah
AhiaMary
AhiaNancy
AhoiVictoria
AholoLydiaKa’onohiponiponikalani
AiEmma Kaleionamoku
AikenWorth Osbun
AikueAbigail
Aikue Dorcas
AiwohiEmma Kahoopaa
AkanaEmilyKaleiwohiidentification corrected to Akana, Emma Rose
AlexanderMary Elizabeth
AlexanderSamuel Thomas
AlexanderWilliam De Witt
AliciaMarytranscription error — this is Ahia, Mary
AllenCordelia Church Bishop
AnahuMargaretKealamoani
AnahuRoseKukona
AndersonBlanche Alice
AndersonJames
AndersonR.B.
AndrewS.J.
AndrewsGeorge Pierce
AppletonLilla Estelle
ArmstrongAnna M.
ArmstrongGeneral Samuel Chapman
AshfordClarence Wilder
AthertonCharles Henry
AthertonJoseph Ballard
AthertonJuliette Montague Cooke
AthertonMary Cushing
AthertonMinnie Myrtle Merriam
AtwaterWilliam Olmstead
AukaiLucyKapahuahuula
AustinCaroline Hannal Clark
AustinStafford Lapham
BabbCaroline May Holden
BabbGeorge Herbert
BakerEdward P.
BaldwinLois Gregory Morris
BartholomewEmily K.
BartholomewFred
BartholomewHattie
BeckwithEdward Griffin
BeckwithMillie C.
BennerAnnie Eckfeldt
BergerHeinrich Wilhelm
BinghamHiram II
BipikaneJohn W.
BishopBernice Pauahi
BishopCharles Reed
BishopSereno Edwards
BlaineJames G.
BlakeCharles E.
BlountJames Henderson
BlountEugenia Clopton Wiley
BowenWilliam Alfred
BowenEmma Viola Kennedy
BrewerMargaret Abernethy
BridgesEllaKamakea
Bridges Mary EllenHanau-umi-a-Kanoena Kanoina
BrownGeorge
BrownIreneHaalou Kahalelaukoa-Kamamalu ‘I’ifather John Papa I’i
BuchananC.H.
BurgessEtta Augusta
BushJohn Edward
CarothersGeorge R.
CarterHeny Augustus Pierce
CarterJoseph Oliver
CastleCaroline Dickenson
Castle George Parmalee
Castle Henry Northrup
Castle Ida Beatrice Lowey
Castle Ida Mary Tenney
Castle Mary Ann Tenney
Castle William Richards
ChaseCharles Edward
ChaseHelen Smith Bourne
ClarkCharles Hopkins
ClarkeKatherineKeoulani
CleghornArchibald Scottwife Princess Likelike attended Kawaiahao Seminary ~1867, ~1868, ~1869, ~1870
ClevelandGrover
CoanLydia Bingham
ColburnJohn F.
ColeGrace
ColemanHartriet Angeline Castle
ConeyJohn Haalelea
CookeAnna Charlotte Rice
Cooke Amos Francis
Cooke Charles Montague
Cooke Juliette Montague
Cooke Lilanet Lidgate
CornwellWilliam Henry
DamonMary Rebecca Happer
DavidCaroline
DavisMyra H.
DickeyCharles Henry
DicksonIrene
DillinghamEmma Louise Smith
DoleSanford Ballard
DominisJohn Owen
EmersonJoseph Swift
EmersonNathaniel Bright
EmersonOliver Pomeroy
EmersonSarah Eliza Pierce
FlaxmanMargaret
ForbesMaria Rebecca
FullerSamuel D.
GarlandGeorge Francis
GilmanSarah Fletcher Atherton
Carrie Abbie
GreenMary Theodosia
GulickAlice Elmira Walbridge
GulickAlice Winfield Gordon
GulickThomas Lafon
GulickWilliam Hooker
HadleyAnna Zillah
HainaDeborah
Haina RachaelKailiao
HaleMiriam Agnes
HalsteadEmily Alice
HammondNettie Eugenia
HanaikeEmma K.
HanunaIda  
HardyFrederick Wood
HarrisEva L
HarrisonBenjamin
HightIretta May
Rose Gillette
HitchcockEliza
HobronAnna Maria Kinney
HobronFrancis Elizabeth Gray
HobronThomas William
HopperSusan V
HoppinHelen Francis
HoppinJessie Rebecca
HoppinRuth Estella
HosmerFrank Alvah
HosmerEsther Mayo Kellogg
HugoElizaKaipoleimanu
HydeMary T. Knight
IobaCharlotte
ImumEddie
JonesPeter Cushman
JordanMrs. EW
JuddAgnes Elizabeth
JuddAgnes Hall Boyd
JuddAlbert Francis
KaaeLaurita Kaualokulani
KaaumoaMaria  
KaeleleCornelia K.
KahaiLucia
KahaleahuHelenKalola
KahanuElizabethHoloaumoku
KahanuKahiliLouisa
KahuilaEunice
KahuilaNellie
KailipanioMyra  
KalakauaDavid
KaliaiLucia
KalunaLucy
KamanaEsther  Nakalehaidentification corrected to Kamana, Esther Holo (Wahinemaikai)
KaneEmma 
KanoaHoomaluLydia
KapalehuaSarah  
KapaliMalia
KapiolaniQueen
KauhaneSamuel  
KaulaLeialoha
KawaoEmma  
KealohaHattie  
KealohaMary Neau
KeamuokuMiriam  
KeepJosiah
KekaloheHarriet K.
KeliiaaElizaPoomaikalani
KenwillMargaret A.
KeonaonaJulia
KingJames  
KinneyHelen Julia
KiwahaKeluia
KnappAlice E.
KofoidCharles Atwood
KuEllen
KuaaEster U.K.
LahainaEmma 
LaneWilliam Carey
LeavittMary Greenleaf Clement
LeleoLucy M.
LewersCatherine Rebecca Carter
LewisAlice  Kalahikiola
Lewis HarrietKawaikapu
LiliuokalaniQueen
LimaViolet K.
Lima Zelie Piikea
LittleAlice Cowles
LonoEsther  
LonohiwaKahaunani
LovellJulia
LowreyAlice Lovinna Moore
LowreyNellie Moore
LucasEmelia
LymanHenry Joiner Kaleiokalani
LymanLillian Louisa Hanakahi
LyonsAlbert Brown
LyonsEdith Malvina Eddy
McCullyEllen Harvey
McCully Lawrence
McCully Martha Ellwood
McLeodKatheryn Constance
McVoyMartin, Jr.
McWayneAlbert
MahelonaSamuel  
MakaimokuLillian Louisa Hanakahi
Makaimoku Lydia  
Makaimoku Mary  
MaloneNancy J.
MartinGeorge Henry
MeadHelen Kingbury Castle
MeheulaAlice  
MinnieMaria
MoeMary  
MoodyDwight Lyman
MoriMr.
MossmanWilliam
MusinAnnie Louisa Hodges
MusinOvide
MyersFamily
NakapuahiCarrie   Keala  
NathanielLizzie
NeedhamNancy Richmond
NeedhamSusan M. Cook
ObedHannah
OkabeJiro
OlesonAbigail Jane Adams
OlesonWilliam Brewster
OpekaHannahKailinaoa
Opeka Mary  Kiliwehi
PahauRobert Kolomoku
ParkerSamuel Palmer
PatchSusanne Ridgely
Peck Harcourt William
PepoonHelen Abby
PerkinsSarah Emmons
PetersonArthur Porter
PiikoiMary  Kaimookalani Kamaolipua
PinderSusan E.
PogueWilliam Fawcett
PondChauncey Northrup
PoniawaMiss
PopeIda Mae
PopeKatherine
PowersEmma  
Powers Margaret   
PrattSophia Hall Boyd
PrevierTillie
PuniEmma 
Puni EuniceKameeualani
Puni Tamar
PuuohauAnna  
Puuohau Koni
Puuohau MariaKahopekaa
RathburnWilliam Kolo
RiceAnna Opunui
RiceMary Sophia Hyde
RichardsTheodore
RobinsonMark Prever
RuevskyDaniel Stoaianoff
ScharfEduard
ScottMarion MacCarrell
SeveranceLucinda Maria Clark
SmithFlora
SmithMary Abbey Hobron
SmithSarah Louisa
SnowElla B.
SoaresAntonio O.
SoaresRachel Fernandez
StevensJohn Leavitt
StilesGertrude Ellen
StilesIrene Rhoda
TavaresAntone Ferreira
TerryCasele
TerryWillard Stetson
ThompsonAlice Haviland
ThompsonCaptain Thomas
ThompsonUldrick
ThrumAnna Laura Brown
ThrumFrederick William
ThrumGeorge Ernest Augustine
ThurstonLorrin Andrews
TimoteoEnoch Semaia
TrousseauGeorges Philippe
TurnerCharlotte Louisa
Van AnglenAnnie  
Von GraevemeyerW.
WalkerElizabeth
WaterhouseEleanor
WaterhouseEleanor Dickenson
WaterhouseHenry  
WaterhouseJohn  
WaterhouseJulia Hawkins Diamond
WaterhouseMary Stangenwald
WhiteMaria
WhitneyJohn Morgan
WhitneyMary Sophronia Rice
WilcoxAlbert Spencermarries KSem alum Emma Napoleon Mahelona
Powers Powers Keoikeward of AS Wilcox
WilcoxRobert William Kalanihiapo
WilderWilliam Chauncey
WillardFrancis Elizabeth Caroline
WilsonCharles Burnetthusband  of Mary Ahia (K Sem student listed above)
WingMabel Rosamund
WinerAlpheus
WinterCarrie Prudence
WinterFlora Damaris Thompson
WinterJulia Flora
WinterMahlon Alpheus
WiseJohn Henry
WongAnnie  
WoodArthur Bacon
WoodClifford Brown
WrightMrs. Edwin

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